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教育头条 > 高中生物 > 2019新版高一生物必修一第2章第4节蛋白质知识详解

2019新版高一生物必修一第2章第4节蛋白质知识详解

高中生物 10-17 浏览量: 分享:
下面是2019新版高一生物必修一第2章组成细胞的分子,第4节蛋白质是生命活动的主要承担者的知识详解,跟随三好网高中生物老师一起来温故知新。
 
 
 
一、含量:是细胞中含量最多的有机物。
二、功能:蛋白质是生命活动的主要承担者。
(一)结构蛋白:许多是构成细胞和生物体的重要物质。
(二)功能蛋白:
1.催化作用:绝大多数酶
【知识拓展】少数酶是RNA。
2.运输作用:如血红蛋白
【知识拓展】细胞膜上的载体都是蛋白质,有运输作用。
3.调节作用(信息传递):如胰岛素
4.免疫功能(防御):如抗体
总结:细胞的各项生命活动都离不开蛋白质。
三、结构:
(一)结构层次:
1.化学结构:
(1)基本单位─氨基酸:
①种类:组成蛋白质的氨基酸有21种,分为必需氨基酸和非必需氨基酸,如下表:
 
 
 
(二)结构特点─多样性:
(1)种类:1010~1012种
(2)原因:
①从氨基酸角度分析-组成蛋白质的氨基酸:
●种类不同
●数目成千上万
●排列顺序千变万化
②从空间结构角度看:肽链的盘曲、折叠方式及其形成的空间结构千差万别。
(三)结构与功能的关系:氨基酸序列改变或蛋白质的空间结构改变,就可能会影响其功能。例如,人正常血红蛋白的空间结构呈球状,由它参与组成的红细胞呈两面凹的圆盘状,如果血红蛋白某一处的谷氨酸被缬氨酸取代,就可能形成异常的血红蛋白。这样的血红蛋白呈纤维状,性质也与正常血红蛋白有差异,由它参与组成的红细胞就会扭曲成镰刀状,运输氧的能力会大为削弱。
四、性质-变性:
(一)含义:是指蛋白质在某些物理和化学因素作用下其特定的空间构象被破坏,从而导致其理化性质的改变和生物活性丧失的现象。
(二)举例:
1.高温变性:鸡蛋、肉类经煮熟后蛋白质变性就不能恢复原来状态。原因是高温使蛋白质分子的空间结构变得伸展、松散,容易被蛋白酶水解,因此吃熟鸡蛋、熟肉容易消化。
2.经过加热、加酸、加酒精等引起细菌和病毒的蛋白质变性,可以达到消毒、灭菌的目的。
【方法规律】相关计算:
1.设某蛋白质分子由n个氨基酸、m条肽链组成,每个氨基酸的平均分子量为a,则:
(1)肽键数=失去的水分子数=n-m(若该蛋白质是由一条环状肽链构成,则肽键数=失去水分子数=n)
(2)该蛋白质分子至少含有的-NH2或-COOH总数=m
游离的-NH2或-COOH总数=m+R基中含有的-NH2或-COOH总数(若该蛋白质是由一条环状肽链构成,则至少为0,总数为R基中含有的-NH2或-COOH总数)
(3)蛋白质中各原子数的计算:
①C原子数=2n+R基中的C原子数
②H原子数=2n+2m+R基中的H原子数
③O原子总数=n+m+R基中的O原子数
至少含有的O原子数=n+m(R基上无O原子时)
④N原子总数=n+R基中的N原子数
至少含有的N原子数=n(R基上无N原子时)
(4)蛋白质的相对分子质量=n×a-(n-m)×18。
2.多肽种类的计算:
有n(n≤20)种、m个氨基酸任意排列构成多肽:
(1)若允许重复的话,可形成的多肽种类有nm种。
(2)若不允许重复的话,可形成多肽种类=n×(n-1)×(n-2)…×(n-m+2)×(n-m+1)种。(这里m≤n)
 
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