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教育头条 > 初中数学 > 新学期学习|初一数学上册,第三章 整式及其加减知识点梳理

新学期学习|初一数学上册,第三章 整式及其加减知识点梳理

初中数学 08-11 浏览量: 分享:
结束小学生涯的同学们,迎来了最轻松又最新奇的暑假!他们即将要迈入一个新的学习阶段,去探索一个全新的世界!各位新初一的同学们,你们都准备好了吗?为了大家更好的衔接,三好网小编整理了初一数学上册,第三章 整式及其加减知识点梳理,详情如下:


 
第三章:整式及其加减

1、代数式
用运算符号(加、减、乘、除、乘方、开方等)把数或表示数的字母连接而成的式子叫做代数式。单独的一个数或一个字母也是代数式。

注意:
①代数式中除了含有数、字母和运算符号外,还可以有括号;
②代数式中不含有“=、>、<、≠”等符号。等式和不等式都不是代数式,但等号和不等号两边的式子一般都是代数式;
③代数式中的字母所表示的数必须要使这个代数式有意义,是实际问题的要符合实际问题的意义。

代数式的书写格式:
①代数式中出现乘号,通常省略不写,如vt;
②数字与字母相乘时,数字应写在字母前面,如4a;
③带分数与字母相乘时,应先把带分数化成假分数。
④数字与数字相乘,一般仍用“×”号,即“×”号不省略;
⑤在代数式中出现除法运算时,一般写成分数的形式;注意:分数线具有“÷”号和括号的双重作用。
⑥在表示和(或)差的代数式后有单位名称的,则必须把代数式括起来,再将单位名称写在式子的后面。

2、整式:单项式和多项式统称为整式。
①单项式:
都是数字和字母乘积的形式的代数式叫做单项式。单项式中,所有字母的指数之和叫做这个单项式的次数;数字因数叫做这个单项式的系数。
注意:
单独的一个数或一个字母也是单项式;
单独一个非零数的次数是0;
当单项式的系数为1或-1时,这个“1”应省略不写,如-ab的系数是-1,a3b的系数是1。

②多项式:
几个单项式的和叫做多项式。多项式中,每个单项式叫做多项式的项;次数最高的项的次数叫做多项式的次数。

③同类项:
所含字母相同,并且相同字母的指数也相同的项叫做同类项。
注意:
①同类项有两个条件:a.所含字母相同;b.相同字母的指数也相同。
②同类项与系数无关,与字母的排列顺序无关;
③几个常数项也是同类项。

4、合并同类项法则:
把同类项的系数相加,字母和字母的指数不变。

5、去括号法则
①根据去括号法则去括号:
括号前面是“+”号,把括号和它前面的“+”号去掉,括号里各项都不改变符号;括号前面是“-”号,把括号和它前面的“-”号去掉,括号里各项都改变符号。

②根据分配律去括号:
括号前面是“+”号看成+1,括号前面是“-”号看成-1,根据乘法的分配律用+1或-1去乘括号里的每一项以达到去括号的目的。

6、添括号法则
添“+”号和括号,添到括号里的各项符号都不改变;添“-”号和括号,添到括号里的各项符号都要改变。

7、整式的运算:
整式的加减法:
(1)去括号;
(2)合并同类项。


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