Anew coronavirus, a cousin of the SARS virus, has infected more than 10000people since the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December.Scientist Leo Poon, who first decoded the virus, thinks it likelystarted in an animal and spread to humans.
"What we know is that it causespneumonia （肺炎）and then doesn't respond to antibiotic（抗生素） treatment, which is not surprising, butthen in terms of mortality （死亡率）, SARS kills 10% of the individuals,"Poon, a virologist（病毒学家）at the School of Public Health at The University of Hong Kong, said.
The World Health Organization offeredguidance to countries on how they can prepare for it, including how tomonitor for the sick and how to treat patients.
Hereare seven things you should know about a coronavirus.
Coronaviruses are a large group of virusesthat are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists callzoonotic[ˌzəʊəˈnəʊtɪk]（人畜共患病）, meaningthey can be transmitted from animals to humans, according to the USCenters for Disease Control and Prevention.
The viruses can make people sick, usuallywith a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness（上呼吸道疾病）, similar to a common cold. Coronavirussymptoms include a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache andmaybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days.
For those with a weakened immune system,the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause alower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia orbronchitis [brɒŋˈkaɪtɪs]（支气管炎）.
There are a handful of human coronavirusesthat are known to be deadly.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome（中东呼吸综合征）, alsoknown as the MERS virus, was first reported in the Middle East in 2012 and alsocauses respiratory problems, but those symptoms are muchmore severe. Three tofour out of every 10 patients infected with MERS died, according to theCDC.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome（严重急性呼吸综合征）, alsoknown as SARS, is the other coronavirus that can cause more severe symptoms. Firstidentified in the Guangdong province in southern China, accordingto the WHO, it causes respiratory problems but can also cause diarrhea [ˌdaɪəˈriə]（腹泻）, fatigue （疲劳）,shortness of breath, respiratory distress （呼吸窘迫） and kidney failure （肾衰）.Depending on the patient's age, the death rate with SARS ranged from0-50% of the cases, with older people being the most vulnerable（易受伤害的）.
Viruses can spread from human contactwith animals. Scientists think MERS started in camels, according tothe WHO. With SARS, scientists suspected civet cats （狸猫） wereto blame.
Whenit comes to human-to-human transmission of theviruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with theinfected person's secretions [sɪˈkriːʃ(ə)n]（分泌物）.
Depending on how virulent [ˈvɪrələnt] （有毒的）the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could
causeexposure. The virus can also be transmitted bytouching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth,nose or eyes. Caregivers （护理人员） can sometimes be exposed byhandling a patient's waste, according to the CDC.
1. Which of thefollowing can explain the underlined word in paragraph 1 ?
A. to find or discover sth.
B. to put sth. into acode
C. to change sth. into ordinary language
D. to change sth. into a form that can be processed
2. What are the symptomsof the novel Coronavirus ?
A. much more severe upper respiratory tract illness
B. a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache andmaybe a fever
C. diarrhea , fatigue, shortness of breath, respiratorydistress and kidney failure （肾衰）
D. a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness,similar to a common cold.
3. How do the Virusesspread?
A. Viruses can spread from human contact with animals.
B. the viruses can transmit from human to human
C. The viruses can be transmit by touching sth polluted anddroplet transmission.
D. The viruses can betransmitted by touching something an infected person has touched.
How to keepyourself safe from new virus?
After a new-type coronavirus was detected in viralpneumonia cases in Central China's Wuhan city a month ago, more cases have beenreported in recent days. _____1_____:
1. Wear masks outdoors
Wearing a mask is one of the most effective ways toprotect you from getting infected.
Make sure to wear it properly by tightening up thenose clip and pulling the bottom of it over your chin.
_____2_____, a mask is also needed to prevent you fromspreading germs to others.
2. Cover your coughs and sneeze with tissue（纸巾）
Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you coughor sneeze, or you can cough or sneeze into your sleeve, but avoid covering withyour hands directly.
Wash your hands with soap and running water thoroughlyfor at least 15 seconds.
Before eating and after using the toilet
After returning home
After touching trash or garbage
After contacting with animals or handling animalwastes
4. Strengthen your immune system and exerciseregularly
Exercise regularly is one of the most importantways to help you stay away from catching any infections.
Make sure that shared spaces have good air flowand avoid going to crowded places such as hospitals, railway stations andairports. _____4_____.
Seek prompt(及时的） medical attention if you have symptoms of fever andrespiratory infection.
Avoid close contact with people who have flu orcold-like symptoms.
_____5_____. Avoid contact with wild animals or farmedlivestock without any protection.
A. If your hands are not visibly dirty
B. Eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggs
C. Wash your hands frequently and properly
D. Protect yourself and others from getting sick
E. Wear a mask if transport or movement isnecessary
F. If you’re not feeling well or have symptoms of fever
G. To prevent catching the infection, here’s what you can do
We are deeply saddened by thepassing of Dr. Li Wenliang.
Dr. Li Wenliang, one of the eight“whistleblowers” who tried _____1_____ (warn) fellow medics（医师） of _____2_____ novel coronavirus when it firstemerged（出现） in Wuhan, diedearly on Friday. Wuhan Central Hospital _____3_____ (confirm) in a statementreleased on _____4_____ (it) official Weibo account. “Our hospital’sophthalmologist Li Wenliang was _____5_____ (unfortunate) infected withcoronavirus during his work in the fight _____6_____ the coronavirus epidemic,”the statement read, _____7_____ (add) “He died at 2:58 a.m. on February 7 afterattempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful.”
“After emergency treatment, LiWenliang passed away,” the Central Hospital of Wuhan announced on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter. “We deeply regret and mourn Li’s _____8_____ (die).”
Dr. Li is a hero, _____9_____will live in our hearts forever. May God bless all the courageous doctors and_____10_____ (nurse) fighting on the front line.
Chineseresearchers have found three ___1___(exist)drugs with ___2___(fair)good inhibitory(抑制的) effects on the novel(新颖的）coronavirus ___3___thecellular（细胞的） level, a local newspaper has reported. The threedrugs are Remdesivir, Chloroquine and Ritonavir. They are now under relevant ___4___ (procedure)to gain approval for ___5___ (clinic)use, said Hubei Daily ___6___ Wednesday. The ___7___(discover) was jointly made by researchers from theAcademy of Military Medical Sciences and the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) under the Chinese Academy ofSciences (CAS).
The novel coronavirus(冠状病毒), which____1____(originate)in the Chinese city of Wuhan and has now spread to 12countries, has much in common ____2___ seasonal flu. They are both viralinfections, share similar symptoms and crucially(关键地） can spread from human to human. In themidst of flu season in much of the northern hemisphere, ____3___(tell) thedifference between the two will be vital in stopping its spread.
Human coronaviruses, of which there are four, can causerespiratory (呼吸道)infectionssimilar to flu: while many symptoms are mild, both can lead to pneumonia（肺炎） andbecome lethal（致命的）. ___4___, the novel coronavirus is moreserious than __5__ "typical influenza infection,(流感)"says Ian Jones, a professor of virology at the University of Reading.
"Thisvirus appears to go___6___(far) down into the lungs than would generally be thecase. Therefore, it will give you___7___ (symptom) of pneumonia(肺炎): thelungs becoming flooded, they don't function very well and the patient gets intobreathing difficulty."
Whilethe mortality rates and symptoms of flu and novel coronavirus may end up beingsimilar, humans' ability ___8____(fight) off the viruses differs greatly.
Humanshave naturally built up antibodies to seasonal flu and annual vaccines____9____(develop) to fight it. During a pandemic(流行病), whichthe new coronavirus has the potential to become, "there is no immunity(免疫性) in the population so you have potentialfor a ___10___(globe) spread," warns Jones.
1_______(address)anxiety and mental health concerns caused by the novel coronavirus outbreak,the National Health Commission has required provincial-level regions to combine2.______(psychology) support resources and standardize such public services.
"Colleges3.____ (equip) with psychological centers are also encouraged to step upintervention and counseling（建议） to students 4.___ may be affected by thedisease's spread," said Wang Bin, deputy director of the commission'sdisease control and 5.___(prevent) bureau（局，办事处） at a news conference held onMonday.
Daysof intensive（密集的）work had exhausted him and caused him to lose 6.____ temper for a brief moment.The doctor quickly collected himself and went back to 7. ______(treat)patients.
YangFude, Party secretary of the Beijing Huilongguan Hospital, said many medicalworkers and personnel 8.____charge of registering and screening residents inneighborhoods 9.______(face) tremendous pressure and are pushing their mentaland physical 10____(limit).
"Antibiotics do not work againstviruses, only bacteria," the WHO said on it’s official website. However,if the patient is hospitalized for the virus, he may accept antibiotics since"bacterial co-infection is possible," the organization added. Up tonow, there are no specific medicine for preventing or treating the virus, theWHO said, adding that it is working with partners to help accelerate relatingresearch and development work. "People of all ages" can be infectedwith the novel coronavirus, elder people and people with pre-existing medicalconditions are more like to suffer, the WHO said. The organization advisedpeople to wash hands after contacting with pets, which can help protect them against"various common bacteria that can pass among pets and humans." Chinesehealth authorities said on Monday that it received reports of 2,829 newconfirmed cases of novel coronavirus infection and 57 death on Sunday.
假如你是李华,给留在衡水过寒假的留学生朋友Jack写一封电子邮件, 告知其目前新型冠状病毒肺炎的形势, 请他注意防护。要点如下: