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教育头条 > 初中语文 > 初二语文期中考后阅读理解答题技巧之课文自读方法

初二语文期中考后阅读理解答题技巧之课文自读方法

初中语文 11-15 浏览量: 分享:

   初二语文期中考后阅读理解答题技巧之课文自读方法。近日,各个学校的期中考试陆续举行了,考试过后想必同学们都在反思自己失分的地方在哪里。好的方法是成功的一半,三好网小编整理了初二语文期中考后阅读理解答题技巧之课文自读方法,供同学们参考。

 

 


  1.朗读

  朗读就是出声的读书,这是眼、口、耳、脑并用的一种读书方法。不仅有利于理解文章蕴含的思想感情,而且有利于培养语言感受能力。

  掌握朗读的方法,须经依次递进的三个阶段。第一阶段是正确清楚的朗读。首先是读准字音,分清平、翘舌音,前、后鼻韵,多音多义字等。其次是口齿清楚,在朗读时不漏字、不添字、不重复、不颠倒、不读破句。第二阶段是准确流畅的朗读。一是正确处理重音,准确地表达大小、强弱、轻重、褒贬不同的概念;二是停顿恰当,停顿的位置和停顿的时间都要符合文章原义;三是读准“降抑、昂上、平直、弯曲”四类语调。朗读时语速要适宜,顺利流畅,无断断续续的现象。第三阶段是传情达意的朗读。在理解文章各个部分及其衔接和过渡、掌握作品的背景和语言环境、把握作者流露的爱憎感情的基础上,准确地安排朗读基调的抑扬、节奏的快慢、气氛的强弱,达到既强烈鲜明又恰如其分地表达主题的境界。

  2.默读

  默读是不出声的读书。由于阅读的目的不同,默读时往往采用不同的方法,主要有精读、略读、速读、跳读四种,分述如下:

  (1)精读。精读是培养阅读能力最主要、最基本的手段。凡是从语言到内容都必须全面把握、深入理解的文章,都要精读,如教科书和一部分堪称语言运用典范的文章。

  (2)略读。略读的目的是把握全篇的大意,得其要领。因此在阅读中,对某些难点,只要不影响对总体的把握,可采用“以绕为进”、“以避为进”的办法,不在一处多耗时间。对于长句,要善于抓住主干;遇到难词,要善于根据词的排列组合和上下文的联系,推断它的含义;碰到生字,只要不影响对大意的理解,可以跳过去,以免影响进度,当然,如果几次碰到它,说明它常用,就应该查阅工具书,省去以后的麻烦。

  (3)速读。速读即快速读书的方法。它的特点是快,要求读得快,理解得快,用尽量少的时间获取尽量多的信息,但这并不意味着降低阅读质量。速读允许略,不容许错。

  研究表明:人的阅读大致有三种类型,即点式阅读、线式阅读和面式阅读。提高阅读速度的途径就是从“点式”提高到“线式”,再由“线式”提高到“面式”。因此,在速读时应注意:

  ①克服唇动喉诵的毛病。在目光移动的同时读出声音来是点式阅读的特点,阅读时不克服唇动喉诵的毛病,速度就无法提高,这是因为点式阅读思维流程长,由视觉中心→语言中心→说话中心→听觉中心→阅读中心。速读必须眼脑直映,即由视觉中心→大脑阅读中心,文字直接作为意义的符号,在大脑中解码成为信息。

  ②扩大视幅,加速眼的活动。速读时,应尽量扩大视幅,采用整体辨认法,达到一行一行看的面式阅读水平。同时要自觉加速眼的活动,减少眼停次数,这样既可以加强大脑皮层上视觉神经的兴奋,又可抑制发音动觉神经的兴奋,排除下意识的发音活动。

  (4)跳读。跳读就是不通读读物,有所舍弃,择其所需而读。

  掌握跳读方法的关键是锻炼视读的捕捉力和大脑的选择判断力。跳读时目光只反描最关键的词句,一眼望去,无关的通通抛开,只取所需。此外,掌握一些规律对跳读大有帮助。如议论文,总论点一般放在文章的开头和结尾,分论点一般放在段落的开头和结尾。当然也有少数例外,这往往是开头一段交代背景,最后一段说说怎么办,社论常常这样写。懂得这些常识,有助于议论文的跳读。

  上述各种读书方法——朗读、粗读、略读、速读、跳读等,各有各的长处,各有各的用处。以精读为基础,同时学会运用其它读书方法,无疑会大大提高读书效率。
 
 

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