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教育头条 > 优师支招 > 什么是批判性思维?学生学习批判性思维的作用有哪些?

什么是批判性思维?学生学习批判性思维的作用有哪些?

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  思维导图被家长和老师们提倡学生使用,但是最近美国的批判性思维学习方式打破了思维导图的垄断,很多家长开始重视孩子批判性思维的发展和学习了。那么,批判性思维是什么呢?孩子们学习批判性思维有用吗?随三好网小编一起来看。
 
 

  什么是批判性思维

  很多人对“批判性思维”这个词既熟悉又陌生,尤其是其中的“批判”二字,又十分敏感,难道批判性思维就是对一切东西持怀疑眼光,进行抨击和批判吗?

  我们来看看批判性思维(Critical Thinking)的英文解释: “Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment”。所以说,批判性思维并不是一味的批判和抨击,而是通过对事实的客观分析,然后形成更好的决策和判断。它强调的不仅仅是理性思考,而是独立思考的能力。

  看完上面关于批判性思维的解释,你们知道什么时候是批判性思维了吗?下面我们来看看孩子们为什么要学习批判性思维吧!

  学习批判性思维的作用有哪些

  首先,中小学完全应该开展批判性思维教学,因为形成习性只能从小开始培养,它的重要性也正在此。批判性思维如果不是人的内在素质的一部分,就不会很好地起作用。而培养素质,最好从娃娃开始。

  美国等西方国家在基础教育中培育批判性思维素质的做法和效果已经有很长历史。他们培养学生讲理、论述、探究和实证的性格是从小学低年级就开始的。美国的科技和文化的创造性,一直源于他们以实证、探究为主轴的基础教育。

  现在中国的一些中小学也已经起步了。在开设批判性思维的独立课程方面,进行尝试的北京八一学校和华中科技大学附属小学等,都取得了良好成果。

  不同年龄阶段的学生应该怎么学习批判性思维

  幼儿园到小学一、二年级

  做简单区分练习,举出日常生活中的例子。这个阶段,会让小朋友区分简单的事实陈述和观点陈述。比如:冰淇淋是牛奶和糖做的 (事实),香草冰淇淋最好吃(观点)。

  小学中高年级

  进一步辨别事实和观点,学会用事实去支撑观点。这个阶段,让孩子特别注意文字和谈话中出现的那些带有意见倾向性和概括总结性的词,含有这些词即说明这句话很可能是一个观点陈述。老师会让学生从文章中特意去找这些词,从而判断哪些文章侧重于陈述事实,哪些其实更侧重于表达作者的看法。

  初中阶段

  这个阶段,会引导孩子明白,即使是—个人在陈述事实的时候,也会含有很多偏见和个人看法。比如,同样报道一个事件,不同的媒体说的都是事实,但讲述方式不一祥,内容侧重点不一梓,对读者头脑形成的影响也会不一样。

  高中阶段

  懂得真实的世界真伪难辨,每个人的认知都有局限性。

  这个阶段,对学生的思辨能力要求更高,会让学生从新闻报道、博客文章等媒体信息中去辨别那些伪装成事实的观点,分析作者背后的动机。

  根据上面不同阶段的思维发展方式,家长和老师可以有针对性的帮助孩子进行批判性思维的形成与发展,将批判性思维学到位了,对孩子认识事物和做事情都会有很大的帮助的。
 
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