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教育头条 > 教学经验 > 帝师张居正:为万历皇帝编纂教材《帝鉴图说》

帝师张居正:为万历皇帝编纂教材《帝鉴图说》

教学经验 10-22 浏览量: 分享:
  帝师张居正可谓是因材施教的典范了,张居正为了引发小皇帝的学习兴趣,并且提高学习成效,专为皇帝教育编纂的教材,对象是刚即位的小皇帝朱翊钧,也就是万历皇帝。随三好网小编一起来看《帝鉴图说》到底讲了啥?对我们当今教师有什么启发?
 

  在少年时期,万历皇帝还是很想当一个好皇帝的,在自己眼里,是大明王朝除朱元璋外最爱读书最爱学习的皇帝。在老师张居正的教导下,万历读遍了所有的经书、书法、历史,而这些内容,都在张居正和讲读官们为万历编纂的《帝鉴图说》里。
 

  《帝鉴图说》是张居正和朝廷的讲读官员专为皇帝教育编纂的教材,对象是刚即位的小皇帝朱翊钧,也就是万历皇帝。
 

  张居正为了引发小皇帝的学习兴趣,并且提高学习成效,采用以图片搭配短篇故事的方式,将历代帝王分为“圣哲芳规”和“狂愚覆辙”两大类。此为明万历元年纯忠堂刊本。

  也就是说这本书是明朝官方对历代皇帝的看法。

  《帝鉴图说》分为上下两部:上部题名为《圣哲芳规》,编录上自尧舜;下止唐宋共23个古代帝王的“其善为可法者”事迹共81则;下部题名为《狂愚覆辙》,共录三代以下共20个帝王的“恶可为戒者”劣行共36则。
 

  《周易》称九为阳爻、六为阴爻,这上下两部书在选取事例时分别以九九八十一或六六三十六为数,用以区分善恶,暗合《易经》,张居正可谓用心良苦。

  对于所取事例,每一则还有一个标题,标题全部以四个字为限。如对汉高祖刘邦,就有“入关约法”、“任用三杰”等;对唐太宗李世民,则有“撤殿营居”、敬贤怀鹞”、“弘文开馆”、“面斥佞臣”等;对秦始皇赢政,即为“遣使求仙”、“坑儒焚书”、“大营宫室”;对宋徽宗赵佶,即为“应奉花石”、“任用六贼” 等。
 

  每一则事例都有情节、有人物,内容皆出自史籍,“记载未详者,不敢采录”,除引录史籍之外,各篇还附有用当时的白话文写的讲释,有的篇目后面还间或有一些简短的评论文字。比如。在《圣哲芳规》第17则《却千里马》中,编撰者就在讲释汉文帝为什么拒绝臣僚献千里马的动机时评论道:“夫千里马是良马也,文帝以为非天子所宜用,尚且不受,况其他珠玉宝贝、珍禽奇兽?不切于人主日用者,又岂足以动其心乎?书曰:‘不作无益害有益,功乃成;不贵异物贱用物,民乃足。’正文帝之谓也。”其评论文字之深入浅出,言简意深,由此可略见一斑。令人痛惜的是,朱翊钧对张居正的这些谆谆教诲根本没听进耳,而是当这位“少师兼太子太师”一死,他便全面推翻张居正倡行的新政,从此晏处深宫,荒疏朝政,并公然传索帑藏,成为明朝又一个昏庸透顶的帝王。

  在《帝鉴图说》中,图画部分占有相当的份量,书中每一则事例都配着一幅画,每幅画都占一整幅页码。有明一朝,绘画艺术得到了长足的发展,除了沈周、祝允明、唐寅、文征明之外,还出现了仇英、陈洪绶等著名人物画家。《帝鉴图说》的绘画者虽未署名,但以其为御用图书配画的资格论,想必为一时之选。画面上,以二维空间表现透视关系,线条流畅,造型生动,人物的表情、动态、服饰无不精心绘制,充分展示了当时绘画艺术的超卓技艺。
 
  本文转载自时拾史事,感谢您的阅读与支持,如有侵权,请联系删除。

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